Myers Briggs Personality
Myers-Briggs:
Myers Briggs Personality Type & the MBTI

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.

Personality Type or Psychological Type are terms most commonly associated with the model of personality development created by Isabel Briggs Myers (aka Briggs Meyer, Meyer Briggs, Briggs & Myers ) the author of the world's most widely used personality inventory, the MBTI or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ® Myers' and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed their model and inventory around the ideas and theories of psychologist Carl Jung, a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and a leading exponent of Gestalt personality theory.

Myers-Briggs Personality Test: Description of the 4 Scales of the MBTI

The MBTI asks the candidate to answer a series of ‘forced-choice’ questions, where one choice identifies you as belonging to one of four paired traits. The basic test takes twenty minutes, and at the end you are presented with a precise, multi-dimensional summary of your personality. The MBTI test classifies people into types based on 4 bi-polar dimensions:

Extraversion-Introversion (E-I)
Distinguishes a preference for focusing attention on, and drawing energy from, the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas and impressions.

Sensing-Intuition (S-N)
Distinguishes a preference for gathering data directly through the senses as facts, details, and precedents (Sensing) versus indirectly as relationships, patterns, and possibilities (Intuition).

Thinking-Feeling (T-F)
Distinguishes a preference for deciding via objective, impersonal logic (Thinking) versus subjective, person-centered values (Feeling).

Judging-Perceiving (J-P)
Distinguishes an outward preference for having things planned and organized (Judging) versus a flexible style based more on staying open to options than deciding (Perceiving).

There are four positions in the type code, and each one indicates something important about the type. For example:

E or I S or N T or F J or P
Energy Attitude Perception Function Judgment Function Orientation to the outer world

Myers-Briggs Personality Test (MBTI)

The MBTI is a registered trademark of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust and is published by CPP, Inc (formerly Consulting Psychologist Press) who also distributes the Inventory. The MBTI is available from CPP and its licensees in approximately 20 foreign languages. In addition, alternate versions of the inventory have been scientifically customized and validated for other languages and cultures for which a straight translation of English language terms would yield inaccurate results.

Myers-Briggs Questionnaire: Examples of the MBTI Questionnaire

Questionnaire to determine the Myers-Briggs type. For each item of the questionnaire, choose either “a” or “b.” If you feel like both a and b are true, decide which one is more like you, even if it is only slightly more true.

1. I would rather
      a. Solve a new and complicated problem.
      b. Work on something I have done before.

2. I like to
      a. Work alone in quiet place.
      b. Be where the action is.

3. I want a boss who
      a. Establishes and applies criteria in decisions.
      b. Considers individual needs and makes exceptions.

Myers Briggs Test Results: Example of Results of the MBTI Test

Myers Briggs Test Results. Your personality type result is INFJ:
  • Introverted (I) 61.11% Extroverted (E) 38.89%
  • Intuitive (N) 52.17% Sensing (S) 47.83%
  • Feeling (F) 52.63% Thinking (T) 47.37%
  • Judging (J) 51.28% Perceiving (P) 48.72%
Personality type INFJ: "Author". Personality strong drive and enjoyment to help others. Complex personality. 1.5% of total population.

Myers Briggs Results: Enneagram Test Results
The Enneagram is a personality system which divides the entire human personality into nine behavioral tendencies, this is your score on each...

Type 1 Perfectionism ||||||||||||| 63%
Type 2 Helpfulness ||||||||||||||||||||| 86%
Type 3 Image Awareness ||||||||||||||||| 70%
Type 4 Sensitivity ||||||||||||||||||| 83%
Type 5 Detachment ||||||||||| 56%
Type 6 Anxiety ||||||||||||||||||| 83%
Type 7 Adventurousness ||||||||||||||| 66%
Type 8 Aggressiveness |||||||| 50%
Type 9 Calmness ||||||| 46 %

Your MBTI type Score MBTI type behavior motivation
2 26 I must be helpful and caring to get what I want.
4 25 I must be insecure and/or special to get what I want.
6 25 I must be secure and safe to get what I want.
3 21 I must be impressive and attractive to get what I want.
7 20 I must be energetic and entertaining to get what I want.

Your conscious personality is Type 2w3
enneagram type
Friendly and ambitious, 2w3s are outgoing and focus on their connection with others to maintain their happiness. They have robust personalities and enjoy sharing themselves.

Your unconscious personality is Type 4w3
mean type
You are highly introverted and indecisive. You are selective of your friends and can be close minded. You tend to do what feels right and suffer from low self control.

Myers-Briggs Personality Test: 2 Kinds of Mental Processes of the MBTI

In her studies of people and extensive reading of Jung's theories, Myers concluded there were four primary ways people differed from one another. She labeled these differences "preferences" - drawing a similarity to "hand preferences" to illustrate that although we all use both of our hands, most of us have a preference for one over the other and "it" takes the lead in many of the activities in which we use our hands.

The first set of mental preferences relates to how people "Perceive" or take in information. In the Myers MBTI Type Code, this is the second letter.

Those who prefer Sensing Perception favor clear, tangible data and information that fits in well with their direct here-and-now experience.

In contrast, those who prefer Intuition Perception are drawn to information that is more abstract, conceptual, big-picture, and represents imaginative possibilities for the future.

The second set of mental preferences identifies how people form "Judgments" or make decisions. In the Myers MBTI Type Code, this is the third letter.

Those who prefer Thinking Judgment have a natural preference for making decisions in an objective, logical, and analytical manner with an emphasis on tasks and results to be accomplished.

Those whose preference is for Feeling Judgment make their decisions in a somewhat global, visceral, harmony and value-oriented way, paying particular attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people.

One of the practical applications of the MBTI and understanding these preferences is in supporting better Teamwork. Differences in these mental preferences lead to quite different value structures and communication styles, which can hamper mutual understanding and cooperation.

For example, people who share Sensing and Thinking preferences find they are naturally on the same wavelength; they easily understand one another, making good teammates and partners. Likewise, people who share Intuition and Feeling have a similar kinship among them. However, in the "real" world, it is more likely that you'll find a mixed bag of people, a variety of types, in the same work group. While this diversity can be a useful strength, contributing to greater depth and breadth of team competence, there will be natural communication barriers within the team due to their natural mental language differences.

Such differences can be overcome, and the communication gap bridged, with mutual respect and practice learning to "talk" and "think" in a second or third language. A MBTI workshop can be seen as an introduction to learning the language, habits and culture of other types.

Myers-Briggs Personality Test: 2 Kinds of Mental Orientations of the MBTI

There are two other mental preferences that are part of the Myers-Briggs model:
Energy Orientation and Outer World Orientation. The first one is the dimension of personality discovered by Carl Jung that became widely adopted by general psychology: Extraversion-Introversion. The second is the dimension of personality that is Myers' unique contribution to Jung's theory, an element she inferred from Jung's work but was not clearly addressed as an essential component of his theory of types. This is the style or orientation one uses in dealing with the external world: Judging or Perceiving.

Energy Orientation pertains to the two forms of Energy Consciousness each of us experiences on a daily basis. We occupy two mental worlds: one is inwardly turned, the other is outward. One of these worlds is our elemental source of energy; the other secondary. In the Myers MBTI Type Code, this is the first letter.

Those who prefer Introversion draw their primary energy from the
inner world of information, thoughts, ideas, and other reflections.
When circumstances require an excessive amount of attention spent in
the "outside" world, those preferring Introversion find the need to retreat to
a more private setting as if to recharge their drained batteries.<

In contrast, those who prefer Extraversion are drawn to the outside world as
their elemental source of energy. Rarely, if ever, do extraverted preference
people feel their energy batteries are "drained" by excessive amounts of
interaction with the outside world. They must engage the things, people,
places and activities going on in the outside world for their life force.

While the E-I dimension was Jung's gift to general psychology, unfortunately it has been widely distorted into a well-unwell scale with characteristics of Introversion being cast in a negative light and conversely characteristics of Extraversion cast in a positive light.
This cultural bias frequently leads natural introverted types to mis-identify their primary preference as Extraversion.

Extraverted Orientation relates to which mental preference one relies upon in dealing with/relating with the Outside World. It is the mental function that takes the lead in the extraverted portion of a person's personality. When this leading function is one of the two Judging mental preferences, then this orientation is called Judging. When this leading function is one of the two Perceiving mental preferences, then this orientation is calledPerceiving. In the Myers MBTI Type Code, this is the fourth letter.

Those who prefer Judging rely upon either their T or F preference to manage their outer life. This typically leads to a style oriented towards closure, organization, planning, or in some fashion managing the things and or people found in the external environment. The drive is to order the outside world. While some people employ an assertive manner, others "ordering touch" - with respect to people - may be light.

Those who prefer Perceiving rely upon either their S or N preference to run their outer life. This typically results in an open, adaptable, flexible style of relating to the things and people found in the outside world. The drive is to experience the outside world rather than order it; in general lack of closure is easily tolerated.

Criticisms and skeptical view about Myers-Briggs Personality Test (MBTI)

Scientific skeptics have presented several potential problems with the MBTI. Neither Katharine Cook Briggs nor Isabel Briggs Myers had any scientific, medical, psychiatric or psychological qualifications; Isabel Briggs Myers had a bachelors degree in Political Science. The theory of psychological types created by Carl Jung was not based on any controlled studies — the only statistical study Jung performed was in the field of astrology. Jung's methods primarily included introspection and anecdote, methods largely rejected by the modern field of cognitive psychology.

The test's owners, publishers and test administrators, have a clear financial interest in promoting the test as scientific and thus may not be unbiased sources of information about this test. Indeed, much of the positive information presented about the MBTI is from the Consulting Psychologists Press (the MBTI's publishers) and associated organisations.

The MBTI has not been validated by double-blind tests, in which participants accept reports written for other participants, and are asked whether or not the report suits them, and thus may not qualify as a scientific assessment. The MBTI has also been criticised on the two measures of any psychometric test: validity and reliability. Test retest reliability is considered to be low, with test takers who retake the test often being assigned a different type. Validity has been questioned on theoretical grounds.